Vanessa Roger-Monzó1

PhD in Audiovisual Communication from the Polytechnic University of Valencia. (2010). Degree in Information Sciences-Visual and Auditory Image-by the CEU San Pablo (2000), in Journalism by the University of Valencia (2005) and in Publicity and Public Relations by the Open University of Catalonia (2015)

Fernando Castelló-Sirvent1

Degree in Business Administration and Management from the University of Valencia (2003) and Market Research and Techniques from the Open University of Catalonia (2015). Graduated in Economics from the University of Valencia (2017)

1ESIC Business & Marketing School. Spain

This work has been developed within the framework of the INDOESVAL research group, integrated in the Valencia Campus of ESIC Business & Marketing School.

This paper presents an educational innovation experience based on the creation of advertising campaigns by students on a subject previously established by the teacher. The experience has been carried out in the subject Art Direction and Advertising Production, given in the 3rd year of the official degree in Communication and Public Relations during the first semester of the 2017-2018 academic year, in the Valencia campus of ESIC Business & Marketing School. The objective of this project is to promote the autonomous and continuous learning of students, increase their active participation and collaborative work in the classroom, as well as linking them to the professional realities of their environment. The process has been approached from two different perspectives: the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles Model FSLSM and the ACEC Model. For this, the questionnaire on the Learning Styles Index (ILS) proposed by Felder and Soloman has been used. Based on the results obtained, a sequence of teaching actions based on four axes has been proposed: analyze, connect, experiment and create (ACEC), integrating the preferences of the students’ cognitive profile according to the FSLSM. The quantitative analysis of the experience reveals a high acceptance among the students.

KEY WORDS: learning experience, educational innovation, autonomous learning, cognitive profile, art direction, advertising production, EHEA

En este trabajo se presenta una experiencia de innovación educativa basada en la creación de campañas de publicidad por parte de los alumnos sobre una temática previamente establecida por el docente. La experiencia se ha llevado a cabo en la asignatura ‘Dirección de Arte y Producción Publicitaria’, impartida en el 3º curso del grado oficial en Comunicación y Relaciones Públicas durante el primer semestre del curso 2017-2018, en el campus de Valencia de ESIC Business & Marketing School. El objetivo de este proyecto es fomentar el aprendizaje autónomo y continuo de los estudiantes, incrementar su participación activa y el trabajo colaborativo en el aula, así como vincularlos a las realidades profesionales de su entorno. El proceso se ha articulado a partir de una doble vertiente: el Modelo de Estilos de Aprendizaje de Felder-Silverman - FSLSM y el Modelo ACEC. Para ello, se ha empleado el cuestionario sobre el índice de Estilos de Aprendizaje (ILS) propuesto por Felder y Soloman. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se ha planteado una secuencia de acciones docentes basadas en cuatro ejes: analizar, conectar, experimentar y crear (ACEC), integrando las preferencias del perfil cognitivo de los estudiantes según el FSLSM. El análisis cuantitativo de la experiencia revela una alta aceptación entre los alumnos.

PALABRAS CLAVE: experiencia de aprendizaje, innovación educativa, aprendizaje autónomo, perfil cognitivo, dirección de arte, producción publicitaria, EEES

Neste trabalho se apresenta uma experiência de inovação educativa baseada na criação de campanhas de publicidade por parte dos alunos sobre uma temática previamente estabelecida pelo docente. A experiência aconteceu na matéria Direção de Arte e Produção Publicitária , em partida no 3 curso do grau oficial em Comunicação e Relações Públicas durante o primeiro semestre do curso 2107/2018, no campus de Valência de ESIC Business & Marketing School. O objetivo desse projeto é fomentar a aprendizagem autônoma e continua dos estudantes, incrementar sua participação ativa e o trabalho colaborativo na aula, assim como vincular -los às realidades profissionais do seu entorno. O processo foi articulado a partir de uma dupla vertente : O Modelo de Estilos de Aprendizagem de Felder -Silverman- FSLSM e o Modelo ACEC. Para isso, se amplou o questionário sobre o Índice de Estilos de Aprendizagem (ILS) proposto por Felder e Soloman. A partir dos resultados obtidos propuseram uma sequência de ações docentes baseadas em 4 eixos: analisar , conectar, experimentar e criar(ACEC), integrando as preferências do perfil cognitivo dos estudantes segundo o FSLSM. A análises quantitativa da experiência revela uma.alta aceitação entre os alunos.

PALAVRAS CHAVE: experiência de aprendizagem, inovação educativa, aprendizagem autônoma, perfil cognitive, direção de arte, produção publicitária, EEES

Correspondence: Vanessa Roger-Monzó: ESIC Business & Marketing School. Spain
Fernando Castelló-Sirvent. ESIC Business & Marketing School. Spain

How to cite the article: Roger-Monzó, V., and Castelló-Sirvent, F. (2019). Art direction and advertising production: analyze, connect, experiment and create. [Dirección de arte y producción publicitaria: analizar, conectar, experimentar y crear]. Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación, 147, 65-86. Recovered from


University education should devise innovative experiences that encourage the acquisition of new skills, abilities and aptitudes through self-learning. This way, in addition to transmitting knowledge, the professor stimulates learning and provides advice (Jiménez-Marín et al., 2012, p. 552). Thus, the teaching actions of higher education institutions must be aligned with the development of the skills that students will use in their future professional life.
In this sense, the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) addresses the need to establish educational strategies aimed at students developing continuous and autonomous learning. In fact, the Framework Document on the Integration of the Spanish University System in the EHEA of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2003, p. 7) points out that the university environment should include professional guidance in the training it provides: “they must provide a university education in which basic generic competences, transversal competences related to the integral education of people and the more specific competences that are integrated harmoniously make it possible a professional orientation that allows graduates to integrate in the labor market”.
In addition, learning should “propose broad and structured forms that allow personal expansion and that also imply, each one in particular, the task of having fun learning and doing it in an interesting and productive way for its development” (Botella and Adell, 2018, p. 122). In this sense, educational institutions should focus the concept of knowledge on the development of experiences that facilitate the performance of cognitive processes linked to vital projects (Castillo and Marín, 2009). Not surprisingly, several studies show that the learning process depends on personal aspects, given that each individual has a style and characteristics of their own, which can change over time and differ according to the context of educational tasks (Honey and Munford, 1986).
Thus, Learning Styles have been defined as “the cognitive, affective and physiological features that serve as relatively stable indicators of how students perceive, interrelate and respond to their learning environments” (Alonso et al., 1994).
On the other hand, there is a consensus in the teaching field about the need to favor the active and real participation of students (Martínez de Miguel, 2007). Likewise, cooperative work is being given great importance as a teaching methodology, which means that university education is in the process of transformation (Vallet et al., 2017). The introduction of virtual learning environments such as Moodle favors cooperative work among students (Gómez-Camarero et al., 2010). Therefore, and taking into account the evolution in the training needs demanded by society, it is essential to promote innovative experiences in the teaching-learning processes in order to train students in the skills that they will perform during their professional life, since the labor market is very changing and competitive (Roger-Monzó et al., 2015).


This study presents an educational innovation experience based on the creation of advertising campaigns by students on a subject previously established by the professor. The experience has been carried out in the subject ‘Art Direction and Advertising Production’ given in the 3rd year of the official degree in Communication and Public Relations during the first semester of the 2017-2018 academic year, in the Valencia campus of ESIC Business & Marketing School.
The objectives of this project are: 1) to promote autonomous and continuous learning of the students; 2) increase their active participation and collaborative work in the classroom; 3) involve them in the professional realities of their environment.
The process has been structured on two fronts: first, the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles Model - FSLSM (1988, 2002) as a fundamental reference; Based on this model, a series of teaching actions based on the ACEC Model (Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2017; 2018a; 2018b; Roger-Monzó and Castelló-Sirvent, 2018) has been worked out, articulated around the axes analyze, connect, experiment and create, integrating the preferences of the cognitive profile of students according to the FSLSM. To diagnose these preferences, the questionnaire on the Learning Styles Index (ILS) proposed by Felder and Soloman (1991) has been used.
The FSLSM Learning Styles Model has become a benchmark replicated by various researchers. This way, numerous works have been carried out in which the FSLSM has been applied to innovative experiences related to e-learning (Joseph and Abraham, 2017, Qodad et al., 2016, Muruganandam and Srinivasan, 2016, Truong, 2016, Fu and Li, 2014) and the context of language teaching (Jingyun and Takahiko, 2015).
Also, the ACEC Model has been applied in the process of creating arguments and in the development of lateral thinking (Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2017), in the design of public policies (Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2018a), for the improvement of the employability of professional graduates in the presence of the digital transformation process and industry 4.0 (Roger-Monzó and Castelló-Sirvent, 2018), and for the purposes of designing actions in the classroom by the students (Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2018b). The ACEC Model attaches special importance to collaborative learning and its sequential approach aims to favor the future professional integration of students in the labor market.
The communication and advertising sector is undergoing a profound transformation that has given rise to new communicative trends that affect messages and users, especially with the systematic use of social networks. This way, the proposed teaching actions seek to enhance reflection in students to solve complex problems that may be found in the labor market.
The project was based on the creation of advertising campaigns by the students, based on the teaching indications they received, and it included the production of a spot, two radio spots, three graphic proposals for publication in the written press, and development of an advertising strategy in social networks.
The fundamental premise of the work was to promote the development of skills that could be linked to the professional reality of the communication sector, so the experience was oriented to having students internalize the advertising production process, from an eminently practical way.


As already explained, the teaching experience we developed has been based on the Felder-Silverman - FSLSM Learning Styles Model. This model is organized in 4 dimensions and 2 opposing styles for each dimension: perception (sensitive-intuitive), input (visual-verbal), processing (active-reflective) and comprehension (sequential-global), a fact that makes it possible to classify students according to their ability to process, perceive, receive, organize and understand information (Peña et al., 2002).
The diagnosis of FSLSM preferences was made by using the questionnaire on the Learning Styles Index (ILS) proposed by Felder and Soloman (1991). With this instrument, it is possible to evaluate the learning preferences of the students in the four dimensions mentioned above. In other words, the test provides information on the strengths or difficulties that respondents may encounter in the academic context. Of the 21 surveyed students, 18 valid tests were obtained.
The learning styles identified in the classroom are presented in their polarization and/or preference for the left (extremely polarized or with moderate preference for learning styles of active, sensory, visual or sequential type), as well as indifferent and polarized or with preference for the right (with moderate preference or extremely polarized by reflexive, intuitive, verbal or global learning styles).

Table 1. Profile sheet.

Source: Felder y Soloman (1991).

Thus, scores ranging from 1-3 to 3-1 show an appropriate balance for any of the dimensions, while moderate preferences are in the range of 5-7. Cases registered with very strong preferences at one end are located at 9-11.
The learning styles were defined by Felder and Silverman (1988, 2002) and, in a concise way, are specified as follows:

The active student prefers teamwork and understands the concepts better by applying them, while the reflective student prefers to work alone and think about the concepts, especially in the first instance.
The sensory student is committed to guided learning, solving problems through clearly established and delimited methods. On the other hand, intuitive students like innovative methods that allow them to discover possibilities and relationships between concepts.
The visual student remembers and understands better what he sees, whether images, audiovisual contents or schemes, while the verbal student prefers written and spoken explanations. According to Felder and Silverman (1988, 2002), most people are visual learners, although in the classes of the higher educational institutions very little visual information is presented, since mainly the students listen to master classes and read written material.
The sequential student learns through linear steps, that is, in logically arranged stages or phases. The global student learns in great leaps and establishes relationships among different subjects.
As commented, the students that show intermediate preferences represent neutral orientations with respect to the extremes expressed by each dichotomous pair. On the contrary, students located in polarized preferences encounter difficulties of attention and follow-up of those teaching actions that are predominantly based on the opposite extreme.
At this point, respecting the premises of the Framework Document of the EHEA that promotes training aimed at the future integration of students in the professional field and taking into consideration the FSLSM, it was decided to apply the ACEC Model, which overlaps with the demands of the current educational context and is structured in four axes: analyze, connect, experiment and create.
If there are no teaching activities oriented to the extreme predominant in their preferences, these students may have learning difficulties (Ramírez and Rosas, 2014).
In the articulation of the ACEC Model, the specific attention of the students was possible, who previously showed a polarization or extreme preference in some of the Learning Styles proposed by Felder and Silverman (1988, 2002).

Source: own elaboration.

Graph 1. ACEC Stages

Next, the different ACEC axes are described.

Stage 1: ANALYZE

The purpose of the articulation of teaching actions of this stage is the development of analytical and prospective transversal competences in students. The evolution of theoretical knowledge takes shape around this type of soft skills related to critical thinking and problem solving (WEF and BCG, 2016). Thus, the initiatives become proactive around the formulation of a future reference framework specific to the area of knowledge of future graduates.

Stage 2: CONNECT

Students tackle complex challenges inherent in a changing context as they connect with the professional practice that is carried out at present in the area of specialization of the field of study in which the curriculum is integrated. Thus, they become aware of initiatives that are placed in the professional vanguard of technological or organizational innovation while this stage integrates four of the 21st century competencies defined by the World Economic Forum in collaboration with Boston Consulting Group, around practical scientific knowledge, ICTs and related to social conscience (WEF and BCG, 2016).
The teaching actions designed and implemented in this stage make it possible for the student to internalize the competitive dynamics of the business sector in which the professional outputs of their discipline are carried out, ultimately promoting a reflexive observation on the part of the student that allows him to identify the present and anticipate the future of his sector.

The innovative and entrepreneurial skills of the students are reinforced by means of teaching actions designed in this stage. Following a dynamics of interdependent adaptability to the environment, they encourage persistence competencies (WEF and BCG, 2016), in order that students can carry out a complete experimentation based on the tools and new methodologies that are at the professional forefront of their curricular field.
It is central that, at this stage, the student can interact with the previously assimilated theoretical framework, projecting in its understanding the competitive possibilities available.
Through this stage, the student reaches the understanding of the process of generating their own knowledge, placing them at the center of the learning process as a proactive actor, not as a passive receiver (Piscitelli et al., 2010). It is necessary to achieve, through a deeper level of understanding, the mechanisms that give rise to this process of learning based on experience (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).
Stage 4: CREATE

The imbrication of previously assimilated curricular content having an initially theoretical basis, as well as the iteration of the three preceding phases, gives rise at this stage to the configuration of teaching experiences that allow the consolidation of own competences of innovative and disruptive routines, integrating up to five competences proposed by the World Economic Forum and Boston Consulting Group, in the deployment of creativity that derives from the continued stimulus of the student’s curiosity, fostering their own initiative and collaboration strategies and the development of lateral leadership (WEF and BCG, 2016). This is possible when they implement this phase as a powerful instrument for creating value proposals that are fully competitive in the market.
At this stage, it is not so much a question of configuring teaching experiences that lead to fostering creativity as a question of favoring the abilities of innovative and disruptive routines, making it possible for students to consolidate.
Therefore, cooperative work with ICT support (Domingo and Fuentes, 2010, p. 172, González, 2016), are central for students to intensify the experimentation of the philosophy “Do it yourself” (Piscitelli et al., 2010).


4.1. ILS Results

With regard to the learning styles (ILS) detected when applying the questionnaire developed by Felder and Soloman, the students showed the following profile:

Table 2. Preferences of the students surveyed according to ILS.

Source: own elaboration.

Table 2 includes the count of preferences shown by the students (N=18) after the participant test was carried out in the experience, following the questionnaire proposed by Felder and Soloman (1991).
There is a marked predominance towards active, visual and sequential profiles, with the students being mostly balanced with respect to the binomial represented by the sensory-intuitive profile.

Source: own elaboration.

Graph 2. Preferences of the surveyed students according to ILS.

The different quadrants collect the sum of students whose preferences revealed by the learning styles showed an appropriate balance for any of the dimensions with a score ranging from 1-3 to 3-1, while the moderate preferences placed the count of their ratings in the corresponding interval of 5-7, and the cases recorded with very strong preferences at one extreme were placed at the count of 9-11.
In view of the existing diversity in the classroom, the professors responsible for the experience carried out the adaptation of the teaching actions, in order to link and facilitate the follow-up on the part of all the students, having special interest in linking along all the development of the experience with extreme profiles, that is, with very strong preferences in the opposite extremes to the design of the experience. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates that the professor can articulate the different styles of teaching available.
The experience was designed based on the majority positions shown in the classroom, being predominant in the field of active, intuitive, visual and sequential learning profiles. For this reason, those students in moderate and extreme preferences for their antagonistic styles (reflective: 3, sensory: 4, verbal: 3, global: 2) should be involved progressively, designing partial actions whose objective was to have their involvement.

4.2. Integrative teaching actions

It was decided to attend to students with polarization or extreme preferences because they may have learning difficulties if there are no teaching activities oriented to their extreme (Ramírez and Rosas, 2014).
It is important to emphasize the relevance of an effective involvement and active participation on the part of all participants in the experience, especially when the FSLSM model suggests that extreme profiles can not only disconnect their attention, but also make them have greater difficulties in achieving the objectives of learning raised by a teaching experience.
In this case, being a class with a very small number of students, the percentage weight of students who were in extreme positions was not insignificant but could determine the overall success of the teaching experience. In particular, the percentage of students that had to be integrated ranged from 11% to 22% (reflective: 16.67%, sensory: 22.22%, verbal: 16.67%, overall: 11.11%).
These partial actions of the teaching experience were designed in the implication of learning resources with a reflective, sensory, verbal and global preference. The specific actions designed for this purpose were also based on the ACEC Model.

4.2.1. Teaching actions based on the ACEC Model

The teaching actions developed to integrate the majority preferences of the cognitive profile of active, intuitive, visual and sequential students in the framework of the ACEC Model began with the creation of work teams to implement an advertising campaign. The groups were maintained throughout the course.
The actions in each of the ACEC stages were the following:

Analyze: At this stage, the designed actions have the purpose of making the student develop prospective skills aimed at structuring further proactive initiatives in their area of knowledge.


The teaching experiences carried out in this stage should encourage reflection and critical thinking in the students, so that they should be able to identify the present and anticipate the future of their sector.


At this stage, the students were able to learn and examine new methodologies and cutting-edge tools in their professional sector. Not in vain, it is essential that professional experience should penetrate the classroom, since it is the best way to make students feel the essence of their future work environment (Jiménez-Narros, 2012, p. 1254) and the teaching methodology learning by doing centered on the active participation of the student is an optimal option.
On the other hand, all these actions were designed for students to develop them collaboratively, since this type of learning provides greater academic performance (Goikoetxea and Pascual, 2005). In this sense, the use of virtual environments such as Moodle makes the cooperative work of students possible (Gómez-Camarero et al., 2010).

Preparation of a spot:

Preparation of two radio spots:

It has been considered essential to integrate this action in the advertising campaign to bring the radio industry closer to the students and provide them with “a real and critical view of the situation of advertising in the radio media with the intention of developing their critical, reflexive and constructive aptitudes around the situation of the radio advertising industry” (Rodero et al., 2011). At this stage, this process has been carried out in the following way:

Creation of three graphs for the press:

Development of a social network strategy according to the global context of the campaign. This action has been included as part of the campaign because the students of this degree must “know the social networks as new advertising support and internet as one of the fundamental means of communication in the creation of strategies and, therefore, their use goes beyond the knowledge that students of other degrees should have” (Torres-Romay and Corbacho-Valencia, 2011, p. 789).


This stage is the most ambitious of the ACEC Model, since the previous teaching activities crystallize into proposals with great academic and professional value: academic, because the students consolidate the competences and skills developed in the preceding phases; professional, because totally competitive works are presented.

Preparation of a spot:

Preparation of two radio spots:

Creation of three graphs for the press:

Development of a social network strategy according to the global context of the campaign:

Since they worked with real brands, it was not feasible to materialize the strategy in the online channel, so each group produced a dossier that reflected the social media actions that had been stipulated in the campaign. The previous analysis favored the proposal of a social network strategy feasible and coherent with the campaign.

4.2.2. ACEC model for minority profiles

As indicated above, partial actions of the teaching experience were also designed in order to involve the students with a reflective, sensory, verbal and global preference. The specific actions designed to respond to these cognitive profiles for this purpose were also designed under the prism of the ACEC Model.


In order for the students to internalize the theoretical aspects of the axis and concept of a campaign, we used the viewing and analysis of fragments of advertising-themed documentaries and advertising campaigns carried out on different media. Subsequently, joint discussions and guided discussions were held so that, individually, the students could draw conclusions and establish connections among the different aspects of art direction and production of an advertising campaign.


The students prepared individual essays of an optional nature to facilitate reflection on the essential factors of the advertising campaigns analyzed in class.
We analyzed technical scripts of spots to later propose different versions of scripts so that, after discussing it in a group, we could illuminate the final storyboard. The same procedures were followed in the elaboration of the scripts of the radio spots, the graphic design and the strategy proposal in social networks.

Experiment and create:

At these stages, the teaching actions among the different cognitive profiles coincided with those described in the previous section, since they were designed from an integral perspective to offer global, although not superficial coverage.

4.3. Results of the teaching experience satisfaction questionnaire

The students showed higher scores in attention to issues related to the quality perceived by the practices offered by the teaching experience (4.39), followed by the possibility of learning new contents (4.17) and the intellectual stimulation represented by the experience (4.11) and its desired duration (4.06), all of them with relatively low dispersion levels (standard deviation ranging from 0.61 to 0.92).
Even with average ratings above 3.5, the least high ratings in revelation of preferences by the students were: the ability to understand the curriculum of subjects (3.5), the recommendation of the experience (3, 56) and the desire to carry out more associated teaching experiences (3.61).
With regard to the last issue, the registered dispersion becomes maximum (standard deviation of 1.04), together with the question related to the professor’s integration in the teaching experience (standard deviation of 1.20), a fact that indicates a strong polarization within the classroom, giving rise to minimum ratings (1 out of 5) of a student for this last question, which causes an important bias in the range of preferences revealed by the students.

Table 3. Results of the project satisfaction questionnaire.

Source: own elaboration.


After developing this paper, it is verified that it is necessary to adjust the teaching actions with respect to the learning styles. On the one hand, the project has been highly valued by the participating students, who have increased their levels of participation and commitment throughout the course. For this reason, the design of teaching experiences based on the FSLSM can achieve a greater and better connection of the students with their own curriculum, since it offers them the possibility of being at the center of their learning, since they aspire to adapt to their academic preferences.
On the other hand, the design of teaching activities based on the ACEC Model favors the acquisition of skills related to the professional development of their sector. On the other hand, current and previous experiences (Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2017, Castelló-Sirvent and Roger-Monzó, 2018b) show that there is an adequate adjustment between the learning styles FSLSM and ACEC, while integrative model.
However, a limitation to take into account in this paper is the size of the sample that, although it includes the population universe, statistically suggests prudence in the generalization of the quantitative results we obtained. Future research is suggested that addresses quantitative analysis with a larger sample size that allows a contrast from clusters based on sociodemographic characterization.


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Vanessa Roger-Monzó: PhD in Audiovisual Communication from the Polytechnic University of Valencia. (2010). Bachelor of Information Sciences - auditory - visual image branch from the San Pablo CEU (2000), of journalism from the University of Valencia (2005) and of Advertising and Public Relations at the Open University of Catalonia (2015). She has worked in various media in the field of information, programs and broadcasts. As a researcher, she has deepened the integration of new technologies in the realization of audiovisual content, online marketing and communication teaching and has published articles and participated in national and international congresses. She is a professor at the Communication and Publicity Department of the Valencia campus of ESIC Business & Marketing School, where she is part of the Degree Committee in Communication and Public Relations and coordinates the Moodle virtual platform of the degree area.
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Fernando Castelló-Sirvent: Degree in Business Administration and Management from the University of Valencia (2003) and in Market Research and Techniques from the Open University of Catalonia (2015). He graduated in Economics from the University of Valencia (2017). He is a registered economist (COEV), specializes in strategic planning and economic analysis, usually working as a consultant and adviser to companies, as well as an analyst in the process of designing public policies for the Administration. As a researcher, he has deepened topics of applied economics, business management, entrepreneurship and teaching innovation. He is a university professor at the Department of Economics and Finance of the Valencia campus of ESIC Business & Marketing School.
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