Artículo
1019-1599 Inglés Vivat

image

Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación. 2017, Junio-septiembre, nº 139, 1-17 ISSN: 1575-2844. http://doi.org/10.15178/va.2017.1-17


RESEARCH


image

image

Recibido: 21/07/2016 --- Aceptado: 11/12/2016 --- Publicado: 15/06/2017


EMOTIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNIVERSITY: PROPOSED ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL AND PERSONAL ABILITIES


Educación emocional en la universidad: propuesta de actividades para el desarrollo de habilidades sociales y personales


José Gabriel Mira Agulló1: Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia. España.

jgmira@ucam.edu

María Concepción Parra Meroño: Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia. España. mcparra@ucam.edu

Miguel Ángel Beltrán Bueno: Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia. España.

mabeltran@ucam.edu


ABSTRACT


Emotional education is itself an educational innovation, which arises from the need to meet social needs that are not met by education, with ordinary teachers or academic subjects. In the absence observed in teaching practice, in this work a series of activities that contribute to the development and reinforcement of emotional intelligence are exposed in order to improve student comprehensive training. To this end, we design and program a set of activities that allow the student to complete the training, improving their emotional competence, developing social abilities that provide better employment.


KEYWORDS

Emotional intelligence - social abilities - educational Innovation – cooperative learning


RESUMEN


La educación emocional es en sí misma una innovación educativa, que surge de la necesidad de satisfacer las necesidades sociales que no son atendidas por la educación, con las materias docentes o académicas ordinarias. Ante la carencia observada en la práctica docente, en este trabajo se proponen una serie de actividades que contribuyen al desarrollo y refuerzo de la Inteligencia emocional para mejorar la


image


1José Gabriel Mira Agulló: He graduated in Business Administration and Management. He is Professor of International Trade and Administration and Finance. His lines of research are business communication and social skills.

jgmira@ucam.edu


1


image


formación integral del alumno. Para ello, se diseñan y programan un conjunto de actividades que permiten completar la formación del alumno, mejorando su competencia emocional, desarrollando habilidades sociales que proporcionarán una mejor inserción laboral.


PALABRAS CLAVE

Inteligencia emocional - habilidades sociales - innovación educativa – aprendizaje cooperativo


EDUCAÇAO EMOCIONAL NA UNIVERSIDADE: PROPOSTA DE ATIVIDADES PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE HABILIDADES SOCIAIS E PESSOAIS


RESUMO


A educação emocional é em si mesma uma inovação educativa, que surge da necessidade de satisfazer as necessidades sociais que não são atendidas pela educação, com as matérias docentes ou acadêmicas ordinárias. Diante da carência observada na pratica docente, neste trabalho se propõem umas serie de atividades que contribuem ao desenvolvimento e reforço da Inteligência Emocional para melhorar a formação integral do aluno. Para isso, se desenham e programam um conjunto de atividades que permitem completar a formação do aluno, melhorando sua competência emocional, desenvolvendo habilidades sociais que proporcionaram uma melhor inserção laboral.


PALAVRAS CHAVE

Inteligência Emocional – Habilidades sociais – Inovação educativa – Aprendizagem cooperativa


  1. INTRODUCTION


    The erratic behavior of some pupils, little or not involved in activities and class participation; tension, sometimes palpable, in their relationships and personal contacts; the creation of informal groups in the classroom where individuals join their peers and, a confrontation and separation between groups is perceived in the environment; the inability of teachers to get the involvement of some students in daily activities; impotence and frustration felt by teachers at the attitude of students in class, etc., are summarized as some of the causes for the implementation, promotion and development of emotional intelligence in the classroom, that may lead to an improvement in academic and social education of students, that is,, to cause the overall improvement in their training and personality, and thus contribute to improving the welfare of the individual and society as a whole.

    Emotional education is itself an educational innovation, which arises from the need

    to meet social needs that are not met by education, with ordinary teachers or academic subjects. The whole basis on which it is based, is based on emotions,


    2


    theories of emotions, the theory of multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, psychology in education, social abilities, the welfare of the individual, etc.

    The aspects to be enhanced by the development of emotional intelligence in the

    classroom are the improvement of self-esteem, of social abilities, increased well-being in life, the elimination of disruptive behavior, lack of assertiveness, hopelessness, lack of motivation, etc. in other words, the development of emotional competencies will include aspects such as awareness and emotional regulation, self-management, emotional intelligence (intrapersonal and interpersonal) and abilities for the

    attainment of welfare.

    To achieve the development of emotional intelligence various formulas can be used, including cooperative learning. To this end, a series of activities to achieve the objectives, which are detailed in the following section of this paper are designed.


    1. Emotional intelligence


      The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) first appeared in 1990 in an article published by Salovey and Mayer, but it was Daniel Goleman (1996) with his book Emotional Intelligence, who transformed these words into a buzzword. The primary thesis of Goleman is that a new vision of the study of human intelligence is needed, beyond the cognitive and intellectual aspects that highlight the importance of the use and management of the emotional and social world, to understand the lifetime of people. Therefore, Goleman said there were abilities more important than academic intelligence, when reaching higher labor, personal, academic and social welfare abilities. This idea had a great impact on public opinion at the time and, according to authors like Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal (2004), part of the social acceptance that occurred and the popularity that the term reached was mainly due to three factors:

      1. The fatigue caused by the overvaluation of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) throughout the twentieth century, as it had been the most used indicator for the

        selection of personnel and human resources indicator, and clearly was not a significant success in the cataloging and future performance of workers.

      2. Detachment that society presents to people who have a high intellectual level, but

        lack social and emotional abilities.

      3. The misuse that was made in education of the results in the tests and IQ assessments, which rarely predicted the actual success that students will have

        once incorporated into employment, nor helped to predict the welfare and happiness throughout their lives.


        Although there is controversy among most authors, since they disagree on abilities that an emotionally intelligent person should have, everyone agrees that these components of emotional type, make life easier and happier (Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal, 2004). And therefore to encourage EI would help to strengthen relations with our children, help to improve our work or have beneficial effects on the educational context, among others.

        At this point, according Schvarstein (2003), it is fair to note that the term Emotional

        Intelligence (EI) was preceded by his predecessor, the Social Intelligence (SI), a term


        3


        coined by Thorndike in 1920, and referring to the ability to better understand men and women, boys and girls, to act wisely in human relations. , The author means, that the word intelligence bluntly, has been traditionally associated with the person's ability to solve problems using logical reasoning. Also that the intelligence quotient (IQ), one of the indicators that measured this intelligence, has also emerged in educational contexts and therefore is strongly linked to the ability of a person to perform effectively in such contexts. This rationalist and unicity conception has been criticized by several authors, that propose a wider view of intelligence related to human performance. Among the most widespread of this position exponents, according to the author, we have Howard Gardner who postulated in 1983 the existence of multiple intelligences, classifying them in physical / kinesthetic, musical

        / rhythmic, spatial / visual, interpersonal, extrapersonal, naturalist, mathematic

        /logic; verbal / linguistic and existential (Schvarstein, 2003).

        Schvarstein (2003) states, following Gardner, that we must not consider multiple intelligences as alternatives of each other, but as complementary. Social intelligence is aimed at understanding the social needs of others, is a critical competency to improve the relational climate and to impact positively on the social development of the specific contexts (labor, organizational, educational, etc.) and thus it can attack the socially tragic consequences, extreme individualism, winning at the expense of another, social exclusion, the exclusion of the losers, etc.

        Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal (2004) also echo that the lack of EI causes or

        facilitates the appearance in and among students, of certain shortcomings. And these are manifested in four key areas according to the authors. Briefly, the problems of educational context associated with low levels of EI are:

        1. Deficit in the levels of well-being and psychological adjustment of students.

        2. Reduction in the quantity and quality of interpersonal relationships.

        3. Drop in academic performance.

        4. Emergence of disruptive behavior and substance abuse.


      Extremera and Fernández-Berrocal (2004) collected evidence that emotionally intelligent students, as a rule, have higher levels of psychological adjustment and emotional well-being, have a higher quality and quantity of interpersonal networks and social support, are less likely to display disruptive, aggressive or violent behavior; they can attain a higher school performance when faced with stressful situations more easily and consume fewer addictive substances (for example, tobacco, alcohol, etc.). And therefore they recommend that the promotion of EI in class is a piece key to improve strategies of psychological intervention and, hence, the importance of developing emotional abilities in the classroom. They claim that if we form a full individual and prepared for the future society is ineludible to educate our students and children in the affective and emotional world, not only on an individual basis but integrating EI into a larger framework, together with other personal and social aspects that are also related to success in the educational context, such as cognitive and practical abilities, family support, motivation, expectations, etc. Therefore, they consider that EI is a dimension that must be taken into account within the wide range of variables that affect or modulate the success of a person and


      4


      thus, the school environment is the ideal place to foster these abilities that will contribute positively to the personal and social welfare of the student.

      In this line, Fernandez Palomero and Teruel (2009) advocate that the priority and

      fundamental goal of education is to achieve a comprehensive, harmonious and balanced development of the personality of children and young people, so with its implantation, already in school age, is an ineludible necessity, and agree with the maxim expressed by other authors, that the school in addition to teaching how to think must teach how to feel.


    2. Cooperative learning and university education


With the creation of the new European Space of Higher Education Area (ESHE) for achieving the European convergence, a paradigm shift in the teaching-learning process is produced, that causes changes in the classical methodological approaches in higher education. According to De Miguel (2005) the rules of that process should be defined to promote a methodological change, for passing from a teaching based on the activity of the teacher to another oriented to student learning, that is, the activities and experiences that must be done to achieve competence as a result of their learning process should be designed.

For this, De Miguel (2005) proposes that in the process three basic questions must be delimited:

  1. What do we want the students to learn? (Established competencies)

  2. What are the most appropriate modalities and methodologies for the

    student to acquire these learning?

  3. With what criteria and procedures we will check whether the student has finally acquired them?


That is, to achieve that the planning of the methodological scenarios that are chosen, lead effectively to the goals proposed.

Jury (2009) goes further and argues that the objectives to be achieved in the classroom are: to facilitate the feeling of free expression enhancing the communication abilities of the student and the group; foster in students the development of communication abilities; collaborate in planning and conducting group activities, assess their own effort and perseverance and identify and control the emotions. The elements that make up the methodological planning, according to de Miguel (2005), are: the definition of the competences to be achieved, the organizational modalities or scenarios where the teaching-learning process will be carried out, working methods they will be developed in each of these scenarios and assessment procedures to be used to verify the acquisition of the goals or objectives. Miguel (2005) distinguishes different types of characteristics underlying the competence: motives, personality traits, self concept, knowledge and ability, and are the last (knowledge and abilities) the easiest and most visible to identify, while first three (motives, traits and self-concept) are the least visible, deeper and personality- centered, and it is on these on which we must influence with EI to increase fitness, attitude and performance.


5


In addition, actions are influenced by time, actions that were appropriate at a given time may no longer be operational today, they are also influenced by the context in which they develop and the own economic, academic or professional environment. He adds that competence is not implemented in reality, that is, it is not noticeable, it's like not to have it. There is only competence if it is linked to an object or a situation, because of this, it is necessary to promote the continued growth of abilities characteristics underlying their competences and for this we will place the student in different situations of study and work, similar to those which can be found in the practice of their profession or performance.

Cooperative learning, as Parra and Peña (2012) point out, is a methodology that enables competency-based learning, as it is an active methodology involving greater student participation. And if you add to it that social changes are rapidly occurring (Guil, Gil-Olarte, Mestre and Nuñez, 2006), it is needed to increase the resilience and self easing of subjects to meet the new needs that are emerging. So, what is really valid is the ability to not get carried away by emotional states and put the emotion in the service of reason, leading to a development of EI for the proper adjustment of young people.

In students training we should consider the development of clusters or competence

groups, in which the corresponding relations between knowledge, abilities, motives, attitudes and values are established and, through them, to reflect the key actions for the development of established professional activity, since it is the one who will require us the deployment of certain competences. Therefore, and following Colom and Froufe (1999) and De Miguel (2005), the role of the teacher is a key element because he must manage well the activities and teaching methods for student

involvement and he should take professional actions as a starting point to develop training as a whole, which will accommodate the knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values, avoiding the constant threat to which students are subjected about new knowledge, they do not understand and therefore they cease to learn and assimilate and achieve the ultimate goal that is the involvement of the student.

Parra and Peña (2012) justify that for the acquisition of this comprehensive training we should go to different methods and ways of teaching, such as the lesson, the problem solving, the case studies, the project method, the cooperative learning, etc., since the combination of these methods facilitate the development of attitudes, values and the tutorial action of the teacher, and also facilitate the active participation of students in positive experiences of development. Therefore, and in summary, student participation in these activities (meetings) should enable the debate on various topics, involving him in projects (scientific and social) to develop correctly what they have learned and always favored by the teachers themselves and from the same institution, and be encouraged to participate in activities, formal and informal, that will incite him to collaborate and cooperate with others so that their social responsibility is strengthened to the group.


6


  1. OBJECTIVES


    The general objective pursued with this project is the development and strengthening of EI in the classroom in order to improve the integral formation of students. That is, encourage, develop and contribute to the proper acquisition of emotional abilities of students to enable him a successful integration into the working world with enough emotional and social abilities.

    This will be achieved through the design, programming and development of a set of activities whose purpose is to complete the personal formation of the student, that is, that with the activities proposed in the classroom, the students can acquire the correct and sufficient emotional competence through appropriate emotional education, thus contributing to their welfare in particular and to the society in general developing social abilities: Recognize and identify emotional awareness; Acquire and reinforce emotional regulation; Develop personal autonomy; Develop interpersonal intelligence; Develop and strengthen abilities of life abilities and wellness


  2. METODOLOGY


    The teaching-learning process involves establishing phases or stages with a temporal and logical sequencing (De Miguel, 2005), based on their, psychological and contextual purpose. Besides, this methodology should be active and participatory (Jurado, 2009) to lead to reflection and communication among participants. Therefore, the teaching activity must be consistent with the objectives set and must have fully explicit intentions, defining the abilities that students should acquire and / or develop during the process of teaching and learning.

    As Fernandez and Extremera (2002) stress, there is an urgent need to sensitize

    educators on the importance of education in emotions and the personal and social

    benefits it conveys, and thus propose the teaching of emotions through practice, training and improvement, which will mark the socio-emotional relationships and channel the emotional development of students. For this purpose, the classification of teaching methods by De Miguel (2005) will be taken, for the definition of the activities proposed in this paper, and the author distinguishes in three blocks:

    1. The didactic approach to individualization, with educational proposals such as programmed instruction, modular teaching, self-directed learning, research and academic tutoring.

    2. The approach of teaching socialization with educational proposals such as traditional or logocentric lesson, the case method, the method of the incident, the teaching center of interest, the seminar, peer tutoring, small work group

      and methodology of cooperative learning.

    3. The global approach with educational proposals such as: projects and problem solving.


7


To improve the social abilities (SA) of the student, that may lead to a correct regulation of his EI and SI, in all that it implies in terms of coexistence, training and personality development, it intends to perform in the classroom and throughout the academic year, various activities to the emotional development of students and their better integration and development in the academic context in particular and relational in general (and Peña Parra, 2012).

The activities planned to strengthen the emotional competence will be based on the

characteristics that Bisquerra (2003) identifies in this competence and they are:

emotional awareness, emotional regulation, personal autonomy and interpersonal

intelligence. And organizational modalities of learning to be applied in the implementation of activities are: lectures, seminars or workshops, practical classes, tutorials, group work and autonomous work.

The lecture will be used for the presentation by the teacher of some content; and

presentations in class by students in the corresponding activity, are also considered theoretical classes, as it is intended to serve for the transmission of knowledge developed by them and their own experiences as the theoretical presentation, apart from being used to present basic contents (stories, case histories, results, etc.) is used to explain the relationship between phenomena (generating hypotheses, steps in an explanation, comparison and evaluation of theories, problem solving, etc.), perform demonstrations (discussions of thesis and opinions, etc.) and presentation of experiences (experiments, presentation of evidence, account of experiences, etc.).

It will enable the student to lose shyness to face an audience, it will facilitate the use of oral and nonverbal language, etc. and as Aebli (2002) states in reference to verbal communication, to narrate is a main mode of being, not only the story is known but

also the person who has told it, since the narrator not only exposes ideas and knowledge but he also conveys the feelings and moods.

Seminars or workshops consist of those activities in which knowledge is constructed through interaction and activity of all students. By using this type of education debate, reflection, exchange and discussion on a specific topic will be facilitated, therefore it is used as a support strategy and with them, not only knowledge is transmitted itself, but also conveys thoughts, they adapt to any area of knowledge

and also, and not least important, tend to distribute and equalize all knowledge to all participants (Davini, 2008). In addition, the role of student in this mode of teaching is extremely active (Riera, Giné and Castelló, 2003).

The practical classes will be used by the teacher to show or explain to students how

they should act. These can be done in the classroom or outside, depending on the type of activity to be scheduled and the convenience estimated by the teacher for the choice of location of realization.

The tutorials will be used by the teacher to meet personalized students throughout

the implementation of the various activities. Alvarez (2008) said that the teacher is facing new challenges, which are: facing the diversity of students, he must accompany him in the learning processes and provide a comprehensive development to prepare them for life. "The tutorials are a preferential observatory that provides privileged information and puts you in a position to participate in taking-curricular decisions" (Alvarez, 2008, p. 75).


8


Group work will be used for students to learn among them, and create and enhance the formation of the group. Lobato (1997) raises the cooperative learning in the organization of work in the classroom, with an interactive approach, whereby students learn from each other, their teacher and the environment. Where the incentives are not individual but group, and the success of each depends on the set of their peers. The components of this cooperative work, according to Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1999), are: Positive interdependence (the link between the components is perceived), individual responsibility (each student responds about his learning and their peers’), the face to face interaction (the components are constantly interacting), abilities inherent to small groups (the student should develop basic social abilities for group work) and evaluation of results and the process (the group evaluates group work) .

And finally, autonomous work will be used to develop student self-learning ability

independently. Where each student imposes its own pace of learning and is responsible for its organization of work. However, Rué (2009) also stresses that for proper autonomous learning, the teaching experiences that the teacher is able to implement and promote in each area, will have correspondence in student achievement, so if you want to have the best students, perhaps you will need to implement the best teaching processes.


  1. DISCUSSIÓN


    This section describes the proposed activities to achieve the proposed objectives. These activities will allow to develop Emotional Intelligence in students. In addition, activities designed are applicable to any subject matter since the competence to develop specific abilities are not linked to particular subject matters, but are transversal abilities that can be acquired for an average student of any university degree.

    With the development of activities the indications by Extremera and Fernandez

    (2004) will be followed, which propose a model in which individuals are asked to identify themselves with the three general demands that society makes of all its members, on one side in their ability to function competently and autonomously as an individual, on the other the ability to properly interact with others and finally the ability to ensure social cohesion of the group.

    The activities proposed next to improve Emotional Intelligence, will be made

    through the development and enhancement of social abilities (SA) of the students. They are based on aspects or characteristics that experts believe are part of Emotional Intelligence, which are emotional awareness, emotional regulation, personal

    autonomy and interpersonal intelligence.


      1. Emotional Self-Awareness Activity


        Before the start of activities it will be proposed to students to perform an act of self- awareness and assessment, and to define themselves in different ways, both personal and social (self-concept, empathy, well-being with themselves and society, attitude towards study, attitude to social volunteering, etc.) in order to perform the same


        9


        activity at the end of the academic year, after completing the proposed activities, and that they are aware of whether there have been significant changes in their conduct and behavior, what kind of changes have been and whether these changes have reinforced positivity or rather the opposite, and further discussion of their personal perceptions to themselves in group , and get so that they capture the objective assessment of others about them.

        For the development of this feature, a first activity (Activity 1) to serve as a starting

        point to other activities during the academic year, as noted above, and in which

        students are asked to define themselves socially, conducting a review of self-

        awareness in which they will be given guidelines on concepts on which they should pay attention in this activity, for example: am I aware of my emotions? I know how to correctly identify my emotions? Do I know how to control and regulate my own emotions? What attitude towards life do I have? How do I see myself personally? How do I relate with others? Do I understand and respect the views of others in general? Do I know what I want? Do I know deal with conflicts? Do I know how to listen? etc. and they will serve as a basis for comparison, at the end of the realization of the proposed activities during the course, through repetition of such activity, if there have been changes in attitudes and behaviors of students and to check thereby the effectiveness of the activities made and how to improve them to make them more effective in future applications.


      2. Strengthening activities emotional awareness


        Following Bisquerra (2003), we define emotional awareness, as the ability of the individual to become aware of his own emotions, that is, to clearly perceive their own feelings and emotions, to identify and properly label them; and the understanding of the emotions of others, ultimately to know how to be empathically involved in the emotions of others.

        In this activity (Activity 2) students will be proposed to search and define concepts

        related to feelings, with the aim of homogenization of the concepts so a clear understanding occurs, by all, of the significance of those concepts that we classify as feelings, such as joy, anger, grief, despair, rage, well-being, etc. With all the concepts targeted during the session, a consensus list of terms, with definitions accepted by all participants in the game will be prepared and they will be provided to all, so that as the second part of this practice, they manifest what feelings have they felt of those listed and if there is no inconvenience, to associate them with circumstances experienced by them. The list will be developed by all students, in groups of 4 or 5, and then presented in class in order to standardize the meanings and that for subsequent activities to be done, its use does not cause errors in interpretation.

        The first phase of activity, as we have noted, consist of the search terms and their

        definition, and will be held in class, in small groups and then a discussion will be held to agree on terms chosen and their definition. The second phase of the activity will be at the individual level and will take place at home, for subsequent delivery to the teacher who will act as depositary and may be raised, with the permission of the students, to conduct a group discussion of some of the circumstances pointed out by the students as a cause of emotions.


        10


        It would be desirable, in this case, that students presented individual cases at this stage of the activity, in which would be applied, in any case, the terms that previously have been accepted together, but if necessary, can be allowed that the examples presented and proposed, for every feeling, to be fictitious, in order to avoid the lack of participation of students (out of shame or shyness), and at the end of this activity the assimilation of all the concepts used and applied to situations be totally correct and unanimously accepted.


      3. Strengthening activities of emotional regulation


        Emotional regulation (Bisquerra, 2003) is defined as the ability to regulate emotions in the right way, that is, become aware of them, express them appropriately, properly regulate and deal with them skillfully and have the ability to self-generate positive emotions.

        This activity (Activity 3) would be a continuity of the activities carried out first, once

        they already had understood the accepted terms. With it is to make a group of general discussion on current issues that may arouse controversy and discussion, with the different opinions of the students. The discussion topics chosen for this activity could be proposed by the teacher or the students, they will always be issues that are likely to cause conflict or discussion among them, with the aim that there is debate, but with the objective that always try and channel it to finally opposing positions are accepted or other options are respected, without reaching a total conflict. For this activity, issues that are perceived as problematic for students and those who consider that discussion, defense and attack of positions, will cause enough involvement by all and with a moderator, which may be the teacher himself or a student, to try that arguments raised are carried out politely and without violence or aggression, by any participant, to cite some examples of debates they could be about the abortion, euthanasia, issues of a political nature, about immigration or racism, sex, etc. These issues raised may seem very general or vague in principle, but surely that will be largely defined when the teacher knows the group and raise issues that provoke discussion, those in which their sensitivity feels strongly threatened or upset.

        With this activity it is intended that students can achieve a level of discussion that never reaches the breakdown of dialogue or insult, although opinions are not shared, the channel of discussion be respectful, understood or ignored, but never with signs

        of aggressiveness by or between them.

        For this activity it is estimated that there must be a moderator to check the rules of the game and try; at all times, to direct the discussion along the line of tolerance and

        respect. The moderator, in the first discussion, will be the teacher and successively can leave the job to another student, if deemed advisable, since that activity of being a moderator may also be susceptible to a stress situation that will be beneficial for participants. After the completion of each session, it would be convenient that the students prepared a comment in writing for the teacher, expressing the feelings experienced personally during the discussions, and with respect to the opinions and attitudes expressed by other colleagues.


        11


        Also it could planned to conduct a visit to an institution of social or humanitarian character, in order to put students in a situation of social conflict, that would awaken in them conflicting or contradictory feelings, which they can then discuss or reflect together and serve them for enrichment and contact with the reality of others, distinguishing and identifying feelings perceived in others and their own, such as social mess halls, nursing homes, associations of handicapped, or any other institution with people in risk of exclusion.


      4. Development activities of personal autonomy


        Personal autonomy (Bisquerra, 2003) is defined as the set of characteristics that relate to personal self-management of emotions: self-esteem, self-motivation, positive attitude towards life, responsibility for decision-making, critical analysis of social norms, seeking help and access to adequate resources and acceptance of one's own emotional experience, all in keeping with their moral values.

        Such activities should be related to the reinforcement of self, that is, all words to which we add the "self", self-esteem, self-awareness, self-fulfillment, etc. These activities will be sought with those that enhance the realization and personal growth. For this, the next activity will be stated (Activity 4), performing work in groups of 4 or 5 people, on the subject they consider appropriate and which will be subsequently presented and defended in class before the other classmates. In preparing the work in question, it must necessarily involve all members of the group and during the presentation and debate all be accompanying the presenter. The other groups, once the presentation is over, will make questions, criticism and praise about the presentation of the subject, and in this debate all students in the class will participate. Another reinforcement activity (Activity 5), for students in general, will be the support, by the teacher or the person designated for this purpose, in the methods of study and resolution of cases by the acquisition of guidelines, help in planning study staff and the programming of available time, and support and advice on ways to address a presentation or attend an interview or in any other situation that causes anxiety.

        For this activity several small activities throughout the academic year will also be scheduled and for all students in the school day where students individually made presentations to peers.


      5. Activities proposed for the development of interpersonal intelligence


        The definition of interpersonal intelligence is taken from the proposal of Bisquerra (2003) as the ability to maintain harmony in their relationships with others, that is, mastering basic social abilities or good manners, respect for others, to master communication both expressive and receptive, to be able to share emotions and maintain a prosocial behavior and encourage cooperation among all.

        For this activity (Activity 6) the realization of a common and group project will be proposed, which should be done by collaborative work and cooperation of all

        students in the classroom. The realization of a group social activity to be chosen by all students is proposed, which could be from performing a stage play, to enter a


        12


        contest, to participate in an activity of social or solidarity character, perform a group living and sharing experiences (a little trip, hiking or camping), jointly organize a storytelling competence or a cultural event, a raffle with solidarity aim, etc., or any other activity that students propose and in which they feel involved in their entirety. The purpose of this activity is to enhance the ties between them and the society around them and to create and reinforce group consciousness.


      6. Proposed activities for the development and strengthening of life abilities and wellness


    Bisquerra (2003) defines life abilities or welfare, as the ability to adopt responsible behaviors that foster problem solving, both personal and social. That is, knowing how to identify problems, set goals of adaptation, have negotiation abilities and conflict resolution, to know how to enjoy his own welfare and know how to transmit it and generate optimal experiences in all areas of life.

    This activity (Activity 7) would be the corollary of all others and in it, could cover

    many issues and would be agreed among students. In it should be present all acquired abilities or specific objectives for the implementation of other activities above.

    The activity will consist of the study and discussion of the biography of some important figure in the history of mankind and where they could see reflected all the characteristics of Emotional and Social Intelligence, to cite some examples, although, as indicated, it will be agreed by the students, it could be done about Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Gandhi, Martin Luther King, John Paul II, etc.

    The work to be performed will consist of performing, individually by each student, a

    study and monitoring of the chosen character, for later, in the classroom session, carry out a debate where students show the most outstanding emotional traits of the personality of the character in question and how his acting and performance in life, may increase the general welfare and how his behavior can influence each individual

    student and what and why it should be a motive of imitation or model for all.


  2. CONCLUSION


    The proposed activities can contribute to the development of emotional intelligence in students so that when they enter the labor market they can successfully face different situations in their relationships with others.

    First, to recognize and identify emotional awareness we started from an activity of emotional self-awareness, which allow participants to evaluate themselves in this competence. It has also raised other activity, which will standardize the concepts that will work to develop emotional competencies.

    To acquire and strengthen emotional regulation some activities have been stated assuming that the student is able to identify feelings in themselves and the people with whom they interact so that they are able to avoid conflict and properly manage communication their feelings in their relationships with others.


    13


    To develop personal autonomy activities have been stated that help improve self- esteem, self-motivation, self-knowledge, positive attitude and responsibility in decision-making.

    The development of interpersonal intelligence help to improve relationships with

    others. In this sense, the activities contribute to mastering basic social abilities (DHHS), respect for others, to know how to share emotions, master communication, etc .; ultimately, to maintain a harmonious prosocial behavior and encourage cooperation among individuals.

    Finally, the activities to develop and strengthen life abilities and wellness will allow them to adopt and develop responsible behaviors that promote the solution of interpersonal conflicts, being able to identify them, to acquire capacity to negotiate and resolve them, to generate positive experiences that enhance their experiences and emotions and move them in their coexistence as a way to help and support in their relations with others.


  3. REFERENCES


Aebli, H. (2002). Doce formas básicas de enseñar. Madrid: Narcea.


Álvarez González, M. (2008). La tutoría académica en el Espacio Europeo de la Educación Superior. Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del profesorado, 22(1), 48- 70.


Bisquerra, R. (2003). Educación Emocional y competencias básicas para la vida.

Revista de Investigación Educativa, 21(1), 7-43.


Colom, R. y Froufe, M. (1999). Inteligencia emocional: como aplicarla en la práctica docente. Cuadernos de Educación Santillana. Recuperado de: http://ocw.um.es/cc.- sociales/inmigracion-y-drogodependencias/otros-recursos-1/M4- Inteligencia%20emocional.pdf.


Davini, C. (2008). Métodos de enseñanza: Didáctica general para maestros y profesores.

Buenos Aires: Santillana.


De Miguel, M. (dir) y Otros. (2005). Modalidades de enseñanzas centradas en el modelo de competencias. Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo.


Extremera, N. y Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2004). El papel de la inteligencia emocional en el alumnado: evidencias empíricas. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 6 (2). Recuperado de: http://redie.uabc.mx/vol6no2/contenido-extremera.html


Fernández Berrocal, P. y Extremera, N. (2002). La inteligencia emocional como una habilidad esencial en la escuela. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 29 (1), 1-6.


14


Fernández Domínguez, M.R., Palomero Pescador, J.E. y Teruel Melero, M. P. (2009).

El desarrollo socioafectivo en la formación inicial de los maestros. Revista

Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 12 (1), 33-50. Gardner, H. (1983). Multiple Intelligences. Barcelona: Paidos.

Goleman, D. (1996). Inteligencia Emocional. Barcelona: Kairós.


Guil Bozal, R., Gil-Olarte, P., Mestre, J.M. y Núñez, I. (2006). Inteligencia emocional y adaptación socioescolar. Revista electrónica de Motivación y Emoción 9 (22).


Johnson,D.W., Johnson, R.T. y Holubec, E.J. (1999). El aprendizaje cooperativo en el aula.

Buenos Aires: Paidós.


Jurado, C. (2009). La inteligencia emocional en el aula. Revista digital de innovación y experiencias educativas, 21.

Lobato, C. (1997). Hacia una comprensión del aprendizaje cooperativo. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 4, 59-76.


Parra, M.C. y Peña, B. (2012). El aprendizaje cooperativo mediante actividades participativas. Anales de la Universidad Metropolitana, 12, 15-37.


Riera, J., Giné, C. y Castelló, M. (2003). El seminario en la Universidad. Un espacio para la reflexión sobre el aprendizaje y para la formación. En C. Monereo, y J. L. Pozo, (2003). La Universidad ante la nueva cultura educativa. Enseñar y aprender para la autonomía (pp. 245-260). Madrid: Síntesis.


Rué, J. (2009). El aprendizaje autónomo en Educación Superior. Madrid: Narcea.


Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211.


Schvarstein, L. (2003). La inteligencia social de las organizaciones. México: Paidós.


AUTHORS


José Gabriel Mira Agulló:

Graduado en Administración y Dirección de empresas. Es profesor de Comercio Internacional y Administración y Finanzas en el Instituto Superior San Antonio y Profesor Asociado en la UCAM. Sus líneas de investigación son la comunicación empresarial y las habilidades sociales. Ha participado en congresos nacionales e internacionales y ha publicado en revistas de impacto así como en editoriales de prestigio. Actualmente desarrolla su Tesis Doctoral sobre Comunicación Estratégica en la Empresa.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Agullo2


15


María Concepción Parra Meroño:

Es Doctora en Administración y Dirección de empresas. Es profesora en el Grado en ADE y en el Máster en Marketing y Comunicación y en el Máster MBA de la UCAM. Sus líneas de investigación son el marketing, la comunicación y la innovación educativa. Ha participado en congresos nacionales e internacionales y ha publicado en revistas de impacto así como en editoriales de prestigio. Es autora de varias monografías sobre marketing y de numerosos capítulos de libro en editoriales de prestigio.

https://scholar.google.es/citations?user=H49mMdgAAAAJ&hl=es


Miguel Ángel Beltrán Bueno:

Es Doctor en Administración y Dirección de empresas. Es profesor en el Grado en Turismo y en el Máster en Marketing y Comunicación y en el Máster MBA de la UCAM. Sus líneas de investigación son el marketing, la comunicación y la innovación educativa. Ha participado en congresos nacionales e internacionales y ha publicado en revistas de impacto así como en editoriales de prestigio. Es autor de varias monografías sobre marketing y de varios capítulos de libro en editoriales de prestigio.

https://scholar.google.es/citations?user=Pl_LNaIAAAAJ&hl=en


16

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International,.
Logo de la Asociación de Revistas Culturales de España Logo de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid Logo de la Universidad de Alcalá Logo de la Universidad de la Frontera Logo de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Información Logo del Departamento de Comunicación Audiovisual y Publicidad II Logo de Concilium Logo del Fórum